After months of debate about what led to the Uttarakhand floods in February of this year (eruption of a glacial lake or rock slide), a team of 53 scientists from around the world has confirmed that the cause was “an extraordinary avalanche of rocks and ice and a flow of debris”, using a computer model to reconstruct “in near real time” how the flood developed. But only part of the rock and ice mass collapsed from Ronti Peak in February, scientists warned, leaving a substantial part vulnerable.
A new lake was formed after the avalanche blocked a tributary of the Ronti Creek, but it was not a glacial lake. (Credit: Plant Labs Inc.
The findings, made by scientists from the universities of Calgary, Colorado, Washington, Zurich, Potsdam, Utah, Toulouse, Heidelberg, Geneva, Newcastle, Oslo and Utrecht, among several others, were published in the journal Science on Thursday. “There is no ambiguity that the event was a rock / ice avalanche,” co-author Dr. Irfan Rashid from the University of Kashmir told TOI.
A trajectory generated by a computer model of the Chamoli flood – Planet Labs Inc. And it could happen again. “High-resolution Google Earth data on Ronti Peak suggests that only one larger hanging glacier collapsed in February. There is still a substantial chunk of ice with many cracks that could be vulnerable, ”Rashid said.
Annotated path of the rockslide at Ronti Peak that ultimately caused the flooding – Planet Labs Inc, Dan Shugar, University of Calgary Lead author Dr Dan Shugar from the University of Calgary added: “If you’re just looking for dangerous glacial lakes, you will miss the dangerous slopes that could produce the highly mobile and destructive debris flow, like the one we saw.” . The document further stated: “The Chamoli event can be seen in the context of a change in geomorphological sensitivity and therefore could be seen as a precursor to an increase in events as global warming progresses.”
The Tapovan Vishnugarh project, 10 km downstream, was flooded when the increasing flow of water debris hit it at about 58 km / h (Credit: Plant Labs Inc.)
As for why the glacial lake blast was ruled out as a cause, Shugar said: “For GLOFs, there would normally be quite obvious signs or erosion and erosion downstream from the blast site. But at the Nanda Devi and Nanda Ghunti glaciers (where it was suggested that the glacial lake originated), no evidence of any change was observed in the days leading up to February 7 (when the floods passed through the Rishiganga and Dhauliganga rivers). There were no visible lakes in the previous days either. ” What they found while recreating, with satellite images, seismic records, digital terrain models and videos, what happened on February 7 was a series of “extraordinary” events. Seismic data from two stations, 160 km and 174 km from the source, indicated that around 10.21 a.m., a mass of 20 million m3 of rock (80%) and ice (20%) broke apart at an altitude of 5,500 m above sea level and hit the bottom of the Ronti Gad valley (stream) about 1,800 m below. The average speed of the avalanche was 205-216 kmph down the side of the 35 ° mountain. “The incredible frictional heat generated during the disintegration of the rock mass almost melted out of the ice during the descent. The liquid water is what allowed the debris to become so mobile, ”Shugar said. “Typical rock avalanches that don’t contain a lot of glacial ice or water tend to flow a great distance, maybe just a few kilometers, not the tens of kilometers that we saw here. This was a different event. ” So the fall itself was exceptional. “The ~ 3700 m vertical drop to the Tapovan HPP is clearly exceeded by only two known events in the historical record, namely the Huascarán avalanches of 1962 and 1970,” the document said, referring to a 1962 avalanche in the slopes of an extinct volcano and a debris avalanche in 1970 caused by an earthquake in Peru. “The rock-to-ice ratio and the extreme height of the fall produced a ‘worst case’ scenario, where there was enough energy to melt the ice. If there had been more ice (relative to the rock), not enough heat would have been generated and less ice would have melted, ”Shugar added. By analyzing the videos, they reconstructed that the flow was 25 meters per second (m / s) near the Rishiganga hydroelectric project (15 km downstream from the avalanche source), 16 m / s upstream of the Tapovan project (10 km downstream) and 12 m / s just downstream from Tapovan (26 km from the source), while the average between Raini and Joshimath (16 km downstream) was 10 m / s. The study also estimated the average discharge of the videos: 8,200-14,200 cubic meters per second (m3 / s) in the Rishiganga project and 2,900-4,900 m3 / s in the Tapovan project. Rashid said: “The maximum flood heights in certain areas of the river valley reached ~ 100 m, which is something that none of the team members expected.” Because the flow was very mobile, another anomaly occurred. “In particular, and in contrast to most previously documented rock avalanches, very little debris is preserved at the base of the failed slope,” the document says. As the flow became more fluid down the valley, there were “very few large rocks that typically form the upper surface of rock avalanches.” But one of the main drivers of the disaster, the newspaper said, was “the unfortunate location of multiple hydroelectric plants in the direct path of the flow.” Co-author Dr Mohd Farooq Azam from IIT-Indore told TOI: “The greater magnitude of the last Chamoli disaster it is an argument in favor of avoiding new developments in the fragile mountains of the Himalayas ”. The document concluded: “The disaster tragically revealed the risks associated with the rapid expansion of hydroelectric infrastructure in increasingly unstable territory.”
aur agar ap log shayri me bhi interest rakhte hai to ap log shayari ke liye yha pe padh sakte hai. shayri ke lie apko bahut sare category mil jayenge jese ki
AdaaShayari in Hindi, AadatShayari in Hindi, AagoshShayari in Hindi, AainaShayari in Hindi, AankhenShayari in Hindi, AankhonShayari in Hindi, AansuShayari in Hindi, AarzooShayari in Hindi, AashiqShayari in Hindi, AatmaShayari in Hindi, AwazShayari in Hindi, AkeleShayari in Hindi, AlfaazShayari in Hindi, AndazShayari in Hindi, ApnaShayari in Hindi, ApneShayari in Hindi, ArmaanShayari in Hindi, BachpanShayari in Hindi, BadalShayari in Hindi, BarbadShayari in Hindi, BarbadiShayari in Hindi, Bebas/BebasiShayari in Hindi, BekararShayari in Hindi, BekasoorShayari in Hindi, BepanahShayari in Hindi, BhagwanShayari in Hindi, BharosaShayari in Hindi, BhookShayari in Hindi, BhulaShayari in Hindi, BichhadShayari in Hindi, BuraiShayari in Hindi, ChahatShayari in Hindi, ChandShayari in Hindi, ChandniShayari in Hindi, ChehraShayari in Hindi, DarrShayari in Hindi, DastaanShayari in Hindi, DawaShayari in Hindi, DeedarShayari in Hindi, DeewanaShayari in Hindi, DhadkanShayari in Hindi, DhokaShayari in Hindi, DilkashShayari in Hindi, DillagiShayari in Hindi, DooriShayari in Hindi, DuaShayari in Hindi, DukhShayari in Hindi, DukhiShayari in Hindi, DuniyaShayari in Hindi, DushmanShayari in Hindi, EhsaasShayari in Hindi, GaliShayari in Hindi, GamShayari in Hindi, GarmiShayari in Hindi, GhadiShayari in Hindi, GharShayari in Hindi, GhazalShayari in Hindi, GulabShayari in Hindi, GussaShayari in Hindi, HaalaatShayari in Hindi, HalatShayari in Hindi, HamdardShayari in Hindi, HasinShayari in Hindi, HasinaShayari in Hindi, HichkiyaShayari in Hindi, HimmatShayari in Hindi, HoshShayari in Hindi, HumsafarShayari in Hindi, HusanShayari in Hindi, IlzaamShayari in Hindi, ImtihaanShayari in Hindi, InsaanShayari in Hindi, InsaniyatShayari in Hindi, IntehaShayari in Hindi, IntzarShayari in Hindi, IshqShayari in Hindi, IshwarShayari in Hindi, IzhaarShayari in Hindi, JaaduShayari in Hindi, JaanShayari in Hindi, JaanuShayari in Hindi, JannatShayari in Hindi, JismShayari in Hindi, JudaShayari in Hindi, JudaiShayari in Hindi, JulfShayari in Hindi, JurmShayari in Hindi, JazbaatShayari in Hindi, KaanteShayari in Hindi, KaashShayari in Hindi, KadamShayari in Hindi, KafanShayari in Hindi, KagazShayari in Hindi, KahaniShayari in Hindi, KajalShayari in Hindi, KalamShayari in Hindi, KarzShayari in Hindi, KasamShayari in Hindi, KashishShayari in Hindi, KatilShayari in Hindi, KhaasShayari in Hindi, KhafaShayari in Hindi, KhamoshShayari in Hindi, KhayaloShayari in Hindi, KhubsuratShayari in Hindi, KhudaShayari in Hindi, KhushShayari in Hindi, KhusbuShayari in Hindi, KhushiShayari in Hindi, KimatShayari in Hindi, KismatShayari in Hindi, LabShayari in Hindi, LamhaShayari in Hindi, LamheShayari in Hindi, MaaShayari in Hindi, MaafShayari in Hindi, MadhoshShayari in Hindi, MajboorShayari in Hindi, ManzilShayari in Hindi, MasoomShayari in Hindi, MausamShayari in Hindi, MautShayari in Hindi, MehfilShayari in Hindi, MehfoozShayari in Hindi, MohabbatShayari in Hindi, MulakatShayari in Hindi, MusafirShayari in Hindi, MuskurahatShayari in Hindi, NaamShayari in Hindi, NadaanShayari in Hindi, NafratShayari in Hindi, NaseebShayari in Hindi, NeendShayari in Hindi, NigaheShayari in Hindi, NazarShayari in Hindi, NazareShayari in Hindi, PagalShayari in Hindi, PalShayari in Hindi, PalkoShayari in Hindi, PattharShayari in Hindi, PhoolShayari in Hindi, PoojaShayari in Hindi, PremShayari in Hindi, PyarShayari in Hindi, PyasShayari in Hindi, PyasaShayari in Hindi, RaahShayari in Hindi, RaasteShayari in Hindi, RaatShayari in Hindi, RaazShayari in Hindi, RabShayari in Hindi, RasteShayari in Hindi, RishtaShayari in Hindi, RishteShayari in Hindi, RoopShayari in Hindi, RuthaShayari in Hindi, SabarShayari in Hindi, SafarShayari in Hindi, SamayShayari in Hindi, SanamShayari in Hindi, SansShayari in Hindi, SapnaShayari in Hindi, SajaShayari in Hindi, ShabdShayari in Hindi, ShakShayari in Hindi, ShikayatShayari in Hindi, SiddatShayari in Hindi, SikayatShayari in Hindi, SikwaShayari in Hindi, SilsilaShayari in Hindi, SitamShayari in Hindi, SitareShayari in Hindi, SubahShayari in Hindi, SukoonShayari in Hindi, SurajShayari in Hindi, TaareShayari in Hindi, TadapShayari in Hindi, TakdirShayari in Hindi, TalashShayari in Hindi, TamannaShayari in Hindi, TanhaShayari in Hindi, TanhaiShayari in Hindi, TaqdirShayari in Hindi, TarifShayari in Hindi, TasveerShayari in Hindi, ThandShayari in Hindi, ThukrayaShayari in Hindi, UmarShayari in Hindi, UmeedShayari in Hindi, VishwasShayari in Hindi, VaadaShayari in Hindi, WafaShayari in Hindi, WajahShayari in Hindi, WajoodShayari in Hindi, WaqtShayari in Hindi, YaarShayari in Hindi, YaariShayari in Hindi, ZakhmShayari in Hindi, ZidShayari in Hindi, ZikrShayari in Hindi, ZindaShayari in Hindi, ZindagiShayari in Hindi, ZorShayari in Hindi, ZulfShayari in Hindi, Zulm Shayari in Hindi
Mai asha krta hu ki e article aplogo ke liye bahut badhya laga hoga. main aplogo ke lie har type ki shayri ,chutkule , jokes and bollynew post kie hai. agar aplogo ko jokes ,, chutkule and shayri padhna accha lgta hai to ap log heade mai jaye aur wha pe apne man pasand shayri search kre uske bad ap lgo ke asmne apke man pasand entertaimen post a jayega , usko padnhe ke bad uspe ap logo apne feedback bhi share kr sakte hai, aur agar aplog chahte ki apke man pasand ki shari and chutkule to aplog isko comment kr sakte hai , to mai next post usi pe karunaga.
agar aplogo ko mere article achha laga hoga to comment krna na bhule aur ise apne dosto ke sath share kr sakte hai.